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Wednesday, April 21, 2021

A Painful Mission for France: A Museum on the Ravages of Terrorism

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PARIS — No different nation in Western Europe has suffered as a lot from terrorism as France over the previous decade. With greater than 50 assaults which have killed almost 300 folks — together with dozens of kids and youngsters — the nation has borne the brunt of a few of the worst attacks in Europe.

Now, France plans to memorialize this collective struggling with a brand new museum that may hint the event of terrorism over the ages, together with the assaults on the offices of the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo and the Bataclan concert hall in Paris which have deeply shaken the nation in recent times.

The transfer is a daring one provided that the nation continues to be grappling with the trauma of those assaults, with victims whose bodily and psychological wounds are nonetheless uncooked. Solely final fall, there have been a collection of recent assaults, including the beheading of Samuel Paty, a history teacher who confirmed cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad in a category on free speech.

Along with the demise toll, almost 1,000 folks have been wounded in assaults since 2012.

However the planners of the challenge say the museum is required to assist the folks of France to confront and perceive a scourge that they are going to be residing with for a while.

“The actual fact that we’re making a memorial museum whereas the phenomenon of terrorism has no likelihood of vanishing within the years to come back is a method of exhibiting our capability to take a step again,” Henry Rousso, a French historian who’s overseeing the challenge, stated in an interview.

“It’s a type of resistance by means of tradition, information, intelligence and the transmission of experiences,” stated Mr. Rousso, who additionally helped create the Caen Memorial Museum, which marks the Normandy landings of World Battle II, and the Shoah Memorial in Paris, commemorating victims of the Holocaust.

President Emmanuel Macron of France pledged in September 2018 to create a memorial museum to position the victims of terrorist assaults “on the coronary heart of our reminiscences.” The brand new museum is predicted to be inaugurated within the Paris space by 2027, and can goal to point out how France and different terrorism-affected international locations have reacted to assaults over the previous 50 years, with a specific emphasis on the resilience of their folks.

Mr. Rousso stated the perpetrators of the assaults would even be featured within the museum. Responding to questions he has confronted about whether or not the museum would unintentionally glorify them, he stated it was necessary to symbolize them as effectively.

“It’s a historical past museum,” he stated. “Once we do one on Nazism, we’ve got to say Himmler and Hitler.”

Gérôme Truc, a sociologist on the French Nationwide Heart for Scientific Analysis who helps create the museum, referred to as worries about glorifying perpetrators a “purple herring.”

Mr. Rousso and Mr. Truc stated they have been delicate about how terrorists is likely to be introduced within the museum, noting that depictions may concentrate on them sporting handcuffs in court docket as an alternative of posing with weapons.

Christophe Naudin, a historical past instructor who was on the Bataclan on Nov. 13, 2015, when gunmen burst in and murdered 90 folks — a complete of 131 have been killed that day in terrorist assaults throughout Paris — stated he was in favor of mentioning the names of assailants within the new museum, however with warning.

“I do know some victims refuse to say or see them,” stated Mr. Naudin, who wrote a book about his experience. “I choose to keep away from seeing their footage. I do know a variety of victims wouldn’t have the ability to deal with it.”

Final fall, France was struck by a string of lethal terrorist assaults that got here concurrently the trial of 14 individuals who aided the Charlie Hebdo attack in 2015, through which a dozen folks working for the satirical journal have been slaughtered. Along with the beheading of Mr. Paty in October, three people were killed at a church in Good that month.

Mr. Rousso stated that not like the 9/11 memorial in New York, the French memorial museum wouldn’t be devoted to a specific assault. It is going to function exhibitions, conferences and movies on assaults around the globe, and a historic retrospective on terrorism in France, relationship again to the plot targeting Napoléon Bonaparte, may also be a part of a everlasting exhibition.

The museum’s precise location is predicted to be determined by subsequent spring.

A memorial for victims of terrorism has existed in Paris since 1998, within the gardens of Les Invalides, the place Napoléon is entombed — a fountain and bronze statue of a beheaded lady with darkish, empty eyes and her head in her palms. However not like the reflecting swimming pools that mark the 9/11 terror assaults in New York, the Paris memorial shouldn’t be broadly recognized or visited, besides by officers commemorating France’s nationwide day of remembrance for terrorism victims on March 11.

“The nation doesn’t overlook,” Mr. Macron wrote on Twitter after laying a wreath at the statue at this yr’s commemoration.

The memorial was inaugurated at a time when France’s mind-set on terrorism was very completely different. Françoise Rudetzki, founding father of the primary victims affiliation, SOS Assaults, which commissioned the statue, stated that “again within the Nineteen Eighties, folks have been taking a look at me in a humorous method, telling me that we are going to quickly be completed with terrorism.”

Now, there’s broad acknowledgment that it is here to stay, stated Ms. Rudetzki, who can also be a member of the memorial museum advisory committee and was wounded in a terrorist bombing in 1983 that price her the usage of her legs.

The long run memorial will listing the names of victims of terrorism assaults in France and French victims of assaults overseas. It is going to cowl a interval beginning in 1974, the yr that Carlos the Jackal carried out the bombing of a Paris drugstore and when France started granting “a medal of recognition” to victims of terrorist assaults, Mr. Rousso stated.

Impressed by memorial museums around the globe, reminiscent of the 22 July Centre in Oslo, officers have began figuring out objects and paperwork that may very well be showcased, reminiscent of textual content messages despatched by victims, sealed court docket information, and poems and drawings left at ephemeral memorials.

“Terrorism, whether or not we prefer it or not, is a part of our societies,” Mr. Rousso stated. “Making a museum shouldn’t be a strategy to put the difficulty behind us. It’s a strategy to make folks perceive it.”

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